Directions

Go back to eWaste main page and read the the original questions/areas that you were supposed to have investigated. Then, make a summary/interpretation of your findings in a format that is easy for the others to read. Not too long - bullet points - the key points that you have found out. If it helps, write out the key questions and then in bullet points, jot down the key points.
How long should this be? Well, enough to make the others understand what you have found out...no need to give lots of detail (they can always go and look at your evidence page).
This has to be done by WEDNESDAY - so no excuses.
TOM and MICK: How are you? Please think about how you can catch up....this is a collaborative project and so you have to get up to speed...so please get in contact with your partner for some directions. Please also email me - keep me updated about your absence if possible. Thanks.

Extending the life of a PC



When is a computer too old?
When it is:
· worn out
· cracked
· overheating tremendously

What are some of the initiatives that are going on around the world?
· Programs keep getting updated to keep up with new viruses, ad-aware etc.
· New Windows software e.g. Vista.
· Computers keep getting faster
· Mac computers has a different server, which doesn’t allow it to get viruses
. Many computers have wireless conections insteed of virus. i.e internet harddrive thing liket that.



Summary of Recycling Awareness


Which are the organizations and countries that are aware of the issues?
  • European Union - WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) and RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances).
  • United States - Electronic Waste Recycling Fee, state of California.
  • Basel Convention – Stopping illegal imports and exports of Hazardous Waste.
  • Japan, Taiwan, China, India has recognized that it is the producer’s duty to recycle eWaste.
  • The United Nations has outlined the goals for the eWaste (Recycling).

What are they promoting?
  • Recycling of eWaste.
  • Manufacturers to be responsible of recycling.
  • Second Hand computers and refurbishing - donated to the orphanages/educations so they get the privilege aswell.
  • LEDC, to aware of the harm of eWaste.
  • Campaigns and Laws has been placed upon by the government - controlled the amount of eWaste can be exported and imported.

How are they contributing to the reduction of eWaste?
  • Preventing dumping of eWaste.
  • Recycling of eWaste via reusing and dismantling old eproducts.
  • Refurbishing of old computers
  • Inventing new products/materials for the electronic components which are harm free.

Is this on a global scale?
  • Huge Focus in parts of Europe and Asia and a little in the North American, hardly any action taken in Russia, South America and Africa.
  • LEDC's importing an excess of e-Waste, when they do not know the harm of the substances.



Summary of extracting the ‘gold’


Global Scale

  • EU or the European union and China have introduced a new policy that they must control the use of certain hazardous chemicals in electrical products.
  • India have no laws to e-waste which therefore means, electronic waste in India will keep and keep building up.
    What components can be recycled?
    • Floppy discs
    • Ink cartridges
    • CDs
    • Computer speakers
    • Keyboard
    Here are some hazardous substances in the computer:
    • The heavy metals; lead, mercury, cadmium and hexavalent chrome (chromium (VI))
    • Bromine content, indicative of brominated flame retardants (BFRs)
    • PVC (polyvinyl chloride)
    • Phthalates esters (phthalates)
    Recycling printing cartridges
    • Printing cartridges are picked up from the drop points and transported to collection centers and then shipped to our recycling partners who disassembles or processes the parts for recycling.
    • Printing cartridges are sorted and shredded.
    • Plastics and metals are processed into raw materials.
    • Remaining materials are utilized to generate energy.


Summary of Manufacturers

. Nokia and Dell conjured up respectable score on green credentials exam.
. Nokia and Dell believe that they should be responsible for their ewaste and should be able to deal with it.
. They cannot deal with it because they barely got a respectable score on their green credentials exam.
. Apple, Motorola and Lenovo flunked their green credentials exam completely.
. Apple wishes to keep a greener image, and is what they have said on their website, but fail to pull through on this. Issue that needs to be adressed.
. eWaste awareness is increasing, but businesses are not doing enough about it
. Electronics companies need to review the eWaste issue and do something about it in developing countries i.e. recycling plans?
. Some large companies are taking steps to reduce their eWaste production, but this needs to increase!
. Asia and developing countries are being left to deal with the eWaste which is piling up on their doorstep, and they lack the means to dispose of it in a safe, non-polluting manner. Large companies should see that this is an issue and become more involved in the disposal of eWaste


Summary of the Digital Divide

Environmental issues that arise from eWaste in different parts of the world:
· Toxic chemicals from electronics are responsible for kidney, neurological and liver damage, cancer, bronchitis etc.
· They can contaminate soil and groundwater, and eventually filter into public water supplies
· When incinerated, toxic chemicals from the electronics are released into the air (so it contributes to air pollution)

Countries most effected and why:
· China, India and countries in Africa
· Because of their cheap labor and the lack of health and environmental restrictions, electronic waste are being shipped over there to be handled or resold

Summary on Data on Computers
· Data on computers have to be completely wiped out with data wipe out programs such as KillDisk for PCs and Darik's Boot and Nuke and Wipe Info module of the Norton Utilities suite for both Macs & PCs
· It isn’t enough to just send the data to the recycle bin, delete the files or reformat the hard drive because the data can be recovered and unformatted.
· If data on computers isn’t completely wiped out then anyone can hack into the hard drive on the PC & get financial details, passwords, emails, etc.

· If data stays on unused computers, it will be hacked by unauthorised users…
To prevent this you have to:
· Remove personal data from unused PC
· Deleting isn’t enough, use programs that can wipe out your computer system
· 45% of remaining data in the hard disk have confidential information

UK bank details sold in Nigeria
Briton’s bank account details are being sold in West Africa for around £20 each according to BBC’s Real Story programme. It has been found out that Nigerian “hackers” were able to have access to the internet banking data stored on hard disks from recycled PCs sent from UK to Africa. Basically, deleting files isn’t enough, users should use a programme that wipes out the information in the hard drive before giving the PCs away.


Big Business

There is now an organisation called “Guide to greener electronics” for companies which has large amount of eWaste. They have to send their electronic product to recycling rather than sending it to landfills. But the company that is in last place for committing to this organisation is Apple. Since the organisation has been opened apple didn’t make any progress or change their waste distribution in anyways.
People or organization that benefits from eWaste:
· Workers at the landfill-earn income
· The recycling organization for example Greenpeace, Guide to Greener Electronics.

People or companies that lose out:
· People who work at the land fills
· People who live near the land fills
· Because the landfill causes air pollution and health problems
· Big businesses for example Apple- producing a lot of eWaste therefore there is a conflict between the company and community or the environmental organization.