Each student researches an expert system ideally so that all the range of areas of impact are covered. different area of impact
For each system, the student needs to make a presentation to cover the following:
  1. a general description of what is does (images/diagrams are good) and what is is used for?
  2. who are the users?
  3. the advantages and benefits of having the expert system
  4. any social the ethical and social issues arising from this application (if possible, 2-3)
  5. Links to websites please!
  6. You can either make in a powerpoint/word document and upload the document - or better still, add the content to this page and upload any images.


(AoI: Science and the Environment)

Medical Expert System

(AoI: Health)
A general description of what is does (images/diagrams are good) and what is used for?


The basic tasks that are carried out by the medical expert system is diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, monitoring. In terms of treatment, the patient or the physician could access the system through internet. From here the user could choose from a choice of patient’s database or patience disease database. Each database would perform a particular task, either from diagnosis module or prediction module as shown on the diagram. The feedback is sent to the user through internet so that the treatment can be performed. Expert must also access this system, to update the data stored in the knowledge base.

Who are the users?

The main purpose for the creation of the medical expert system was to support the physicians and doctors. The rapid growth of ever expanding detailed medical knowledge leave physicians without adequate time to study or train and does not let them to keep all the relevant information constantly in their minds. The medical expert system was created to aid the physician’s memory and judgments. However, now it is increasing being used for training of the students in medicine as it is a very effective education and training system.

The advantages and benefits of having the expert system.

  • Medical expert systems can provide; precise, quick and inexpensive consultation with a restless, multipliable and alert consultant of minimum needs.
  • Medical expert systems lead to less undiagnosed cases, lower iatrogenic disorders and more effective treatment i.e. Improved and cost-effective healthcare.
  • They can also be used for effective education and training.
  • A large database of knowledge can be added to and kept up-to-date - it can store more knowledge than a person.
  • The system cannot 'forget' or get facts wrong.
  • It survives forever. There is no loss of knowledge as there is when a doctor retires.
  • The computer can access specialist knowledge that a doctor may not have.

Any social the ethical and social issues arising from this application (if possible, 2-3)

Firstly, the issue of reliability must be addressed. For the medical expert system to work, it is important that the knowledge base is kept reliable. This is because if the knowledge base gives a wrong method of treatment to the user, they may suffer from medical error and cause their injury to worsen.

Secondly, the issue of security is another concern. The administrator of the system must strictly control who is allowed to have access to the system. This is because if anyone is able to access the system and change the information that is in them, it would cause the system to operate wrongly. This links with the issue of reliability. The system operation must be closely supervised and must be made sure that only the certified expert has the right to change the information on them.

Thirdly, however the medical expert system also brought benefit regarding equality of access. As some medical knowledge became available through the internet; people who were not able to reach the doctors are now able to obtain some sense of support. Furthermore, physicians in the rural area are able to acquire the latest knowledge that has been discovered elsewhere single handedly through the expert system.

Links to websites please!

Blue Cross

(AoI: Business and Employment)
Blue cross is an expert system that automates insurance claim processing. The expert system handles up to 200 routine claims each day allowing human clerks to spend more time on tough situations that require human judgment.
The users are who use the insurance policy of Blue Cross. If they have claims that are not too tough they use the expert system.
· Human clerks can see to other tough situations which means they get a lot more claims done in a day than they would if human clerks attended each and every one.
· Work will be done faster as it is an expert system and done automatically
· Gives experience when it is after office hours
· It combines the knowledge of more than one person when the result of the claim is given
· Reduces number of human errors as it is all on the computer
· Results will not be accurate
· If system crashes then more work on human clerks
· Cannot identify complex situations
· If not reliable enough someone can hack into it and spoilt the expert system
Computer Confluence

Music Composition

(AoI: Arts, Entertainment and Leisure)

Oil Exploitations

(AoI: Environment)
n Scene Coordinator's Advisor for Responding
to oil spills ....
Choosing appropriate responses to an oil spill can be a complex decision. This prototype is intended to demonstrate, in a simple way, the feasibility of using expert systems for decision support or training in oil spill response.

Air Traffic Control

(AoI: Science and the Environment/Business and Employment)

Expert system for air traffic control and controller training

A expert system form of artificial intelligence for control of air traffic which may also be utilized for air traffic controller training. The expert system receives input data representing the altitude and heading of all aircraft in the control area. The aircraft data is compared with the data of the other aircraft. Sequencing and local flow control is optimized and if a potential conflict arises between two aircraft, clearances are transmitted to the aircraft to resolve the conflict. The aircraft data is also compared with a knowledge base of air traffic control rules for the particular airport involved. An inference engine written in LISP (or another AI language) allows real time access to the knowledge base. The position and heading of each aircraft is monitored and controlled until turned over to the tower for final approach.
The uses and users
· The expert system may also be used for air traffic controller training and be used as a intelligent tutor. The air traffic controller trainee's clearances are input and compared to those generated by the system. If the trainee's clearances are in error, or can be improved, the expert system prompts the trainee and coaches him in a way so that he learns from his past errors
· Pilots, staff in the control tower.
· Make routing/scheduling decisions,
· Analyze effects of some safety policy decisions,
· Incorporate safety metric into strategic vision,
· Objectively communicate safety issues within and between organizations.

· Apply to all risk categories
· Customizable to different safety environments
· Adapt to technological and procedural changes in airline environments
· Use data and expert judgments in a unified model
· & Good for complex problems where humans don’t have expert knowledge Issues
· Accomodating more input variables
· Reducing number of model parameters
· Use of training data and testing data
· Model development used artificial data
· Different data sets must be used to train and to test
· Generating target values
· Model development used artificial targets
· Strategies for simplifying target acquisition
· Validation strategies - Forecasted Weather: Inaccurate forecasts will lead to higher risk as users of the forecast may ignore information or users may make incorrect decisions based on the inaccurate forecast.

b Hypothetical example:
• Heavy rain is forecasted by NWS at ORD.
• When heavy rain is forecasted by NWS at ORD, heavy rain occurs X percent of the time.



Detecting Problems in Computer/Help Desk

(AoI: Business and Employment)

A help desk is a type of expert system which allows customers to obtain service or help when detect problems relating to a certain object, for example, a person is having problems connecting to the internet, there will be a message that appears on the screen that may give a specific error number, and the system will allow the customer to go through a series of questions and tries to solve the problem. There are many forms of a help desk, for example telephone, online services or troubleshooting programs for various programs.

An example of a series of questions that a customer may have to answer that could help them solve their problem

Who are the users?
The main purpose for having a help desk or an expert system that detects problems in a computer is that it helps privde ‘on the spot’ assistance to customers who are experiencing problems with a program or their computer. Thus, the main users of this expert system are the customers, as they are the ones that benefit from using this system. Furthermore, it can also be used by any IT professionalist as it can help them save time and assist customers experinecing greater technical difficulties that the expert system can not see to.

The advantages and benefits of having the expert system
· Customers can receive ‘on the spot’ assistance if they are experiencing any technical difficulties with their computer or any program
· Less time consuming; Customers do not have to wait for long for the assistance if the system can provide them with the solution to their problem
· Customers can receive 24/7 support as they can use the troubleshooter or go online and seek for assistance
· It enables a business to expand as it helps potential and existing customers to communicate with the business more and smoothens problems faced by the customer
· The system can store information (whethere in a database or any other program) and can retrieve the information automatically and does not need be controlled by any expert to help find the solution

Any social the ethical and social issues arising from this application
  • The expert system is made by experts and may not contain the ‘true’ facts, thus the information inputted could be wrong and therefore lead to further problems
  • Also, there is a concern with how reliable is the source that the customers are receiving their assistance from, for example, is the site secured? (Hackers?)
  • Another point that could be raised is that whether everyone has access to benefit from these services, for example, people who may not have internet may not receive online support/assistance

American Express

(AoI: Business and Employment)