Agent

  • Software programs that can ask questions, respond to commands, pay attention to users’ work patterns, serve as a guide and a coach, take on owners’ goals, and use reasoning to fabricate their own goals
  • A software agentsoftware agentsoftware agent that assists users and will act on their behalf, in performing non-repetitive computer-related task
  • Software agent is a piece of software that acts for a user or other program in a relationship of agency'.
  • Software programs that can ask questions, respond to commands, pay attention to users’ work patters, serves as a guide and a coach, take on owners’ goals, and use reasoning to fabricate own goals.

AI

  • Artificial intelligence: the branch of computer science that deal with writing computer programs that can solve problems creatively; "workers in AI hope to imitate or duplicate intelligence in computers and robots"
  • Computer programs developed to mimic human intelligence, such as reasoning, learning, problem-solving, and making decisions. Artificial intelligence programs enable computers to perform tasks such as playing chess, proving mathematical theorems, etc.
  • Field of computer science devoted to making computers perceive, reason, and act in ways that have, until now, been reserved for human beings
  • The use of programs to enable machines to perform tasks which humans perform using their intelligence.
  • Software that tries to emulate human thinking, emotions and learning techniques such as a chess program that memorizes your moves, employs a strategy and makes comments about your tactics. Software programs, browsers, search engines, etc. ...

Common-Sense Knowledge

  • What people in common would agree: that which they "sense" in common as their common natural understanding.
  • Knowledge that are basic and an average person would have.
  • Knowledge that humans have without having to been taught, e.g. we know the sky is blue

Machine learning

  • The process by which computer systems can be directed to improve their performance over time. Examples are neural networks and genetic algorithms.
  • AI’s technique that makes it possible for machine performance to improve based on feedback from past performance
  • Machine learning is when the machine learns from its previous mistakes, like humans, machines can improve thier errors looking at past results. They can modify changes to make the machine work better. Examples include - Neural Networks.
  • The ability of a machine to improve its performance based on previous results.

Military Application (examples)

http://library.thinkquest.org/18242/app_military.shtml

The F-117: this plane cannot be flown by a human due to it’s design, computers take the pilots input and decide if the movement is possible, they then perform the move for the pilot, he/she has no direct control http://209.85.175.104/search?q=cache:TFZE9YuB0A0J:users.aber.ac.uk/djf4/A.I%2520in%2520the%2520Military.ppt+Military+AI&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=th

Natural Language

  • In database searching, a natural language search allows the user to type words in the same way that a person normally speaks them. Compare with controlled vocabulary.
  • Natural language is everyday language used by humans, used in database searching, so it allows users to type words in the same way that a person normally says something.
  • Language that people speak and write everyday
  • a human written or spoken language used by a community
  • a term which denotes a (naturally occurring) human language as opposed to computer languages and other artificial languages.
  • A type of searching that uses everyday language in the form of a question as input

Parallel Processing

  • Parallel systems employ many processors (perhaps hundreds or thousands), all working together on the same problem. The problem thus has to be able to be broken down into a number of parts which can be worked on simultaneously
  • The ability to process "chunks" or blocks of a program simultaneously. To do this, the computer has to have several CPU units and the software to coordinate them, or it must be able to simulate such a situation.
  • Parallel processing is the machines ability to multiprocess. Which means processing by two or more processing systems. Essentialy, this makes the processing system work faster because there are more engines running at the same time.
  • Using multiple processors to divide jobs into pieces and work simultaneously on the pieces
  • Running more than one application / task concurrently / simultaneously is called as parallel processing.
  • Simultaneous processing by two or more processing units (multiprocessing)-Running more than one program/task etc.
  • To run two or more processing systems simultaneously.

Pattern recognition

  • Pattern recognition is a sub-topic of machine learning
  • The end result of the process whereby, a computer program or algorithm detects subtle and discrete, but related, variations in large volumes of data
Identifying recurring patterns in input data with the goal of understanding to categorizing that input
  • Classification of images into predetermined categories, usually using statistical methods.
It can be defined as the process of a computer taking in raw data and taking an action based on the category of the data.

Turing Test

A hypothetical test for computer intelligence, proposed by Alan Turing in 1950, involving a computer program generating a conversation which could not be distinguished from that of a real human. The Turing test is a proposal for a test of a machine's capability to demonstrate intelligence. Described by Alan Turing in the 1950 paper "Computing machinery and intelligence," it proceeds as follows: a human judge engages in a natural language conversation with one human and one machine, each of which try to appear human; if the judge cannot reliably tell which is which, then the machine is said to pass the test.

Smart Machines (examples)

Smart machines are automated machines, which work on a automatic base. These machines can make someone’s living a lot easier. http://www.asme.org/NewsPublicPolicy/Newsletters/METoday/Smart_Manufacturing_Machines.cfm

Vision Sensor: is a self-contained low-cost vision system that combines image sensor, a processing unit and communication interfaces in a single unit. The technology, offers the possibility to capture, process and transmit only the useful information. http://leiwww.epfl.ch/publications/fischer_schibli_moscheni_afpaec_98.pdf

Your home heater is turned on and off by its thermostat without your being there to turn it on and off yourself. Your heater and its thermostat comprise a basic smart machine (http://www.ljkamm.com/aprsm.htm)

Maintenance diagnostics on GE aircraft engines http://www.asme.org/NewsPublicPolicy/Newsletters/METoday/Smart_Manufacturing_Machines.cfm
xamples of Smart Machines
http://www.jimpinto.com/writings/robots.html
http://www.smartmachine.com/